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Terrazzo construction technology and precautions
Edit:Guangdong Meifule New Material Technology Co., Ltd.   PublicDate:2018-11-19

First, terrazzo construction preparation


1, material


(1) Cement: Portland cement and ordinary Portland cement with 425 and above should be used for the primary color terrazzo surface. Colored terrazzo should be white or colored cement. For the same single project floor, the same batch of cement should be used.


(2) Sand: Medium sand, passing through a sieve with a pore size of 0.63 mm, the mud content should not exceed 3%.


(3) Stone (stone rice): It should be clean and free of marble particles. The particle size is usually 4~12mm, or the large, medium and small stones are mixed according to a certain ratio. The same unit project should use the same batch of stone. Stones with different color specifications should be stacked and sorted.


(4) Glass strip: It is determined by design or cut into a glass strip with a width of about 10 mm (depending on the particle size of the stone) by ordinary 3 mm thick flat glass, and the length is determined by the size of the block.


(5) Copper strip: use ≥ 3mm thick copper plate, about 10mm wide (depending on the particle size), the length is determined by the size of the block, and the copper strip must be straightened before use. The bottom 1/3 of the copper strip is drilled with four holes of 2 mm per meter, and the wire is used for spare.


(6) Pigment: a light-resistant and alkali-resistant mineral pigment is used, and the amount thereof is not more than 12% by weight of the cement. Do not use acid pigments such as colored cement, which can be directly mixed with stones.


(7) Others: oxalic acid, floor wax, φ0.5~1.0mm diameter lead wire.


2, operating conditions


In addition to the working conditions of the cement mortar surface layer, the following must be added:


(1) The stone material diameter and color shall be purchased by the designer after boarding.


(2) If the colored terrazzo is mixed with white cement mixed with color powder, it should be prepared according to different mixing ratios in advance and handed over to the designer. Generally, the amount of colored terrazzo powder is 3% to 6% of the amount of cement, and the dark color is not more than 12%.


(3) At least 24 hours after the construction of the cement mortar screed is completed, it is best to maintain the next 2 to 3 days before the next process.


(4) Stone (stone) should be sieved separately and washed with water as much as possible.


Second, terrazzo construction process


Treatment, wetting base layer → ash cake, making ribs → screeding layer → curing → inlaid grids → paving cement stone slurry → curing trial grinding → grinding the first time and replenishing the slurry → grinding the second time and replenishing the pulp → Grinding the third time and curing → Polishing with oxalic acid.


Third, terrazzo construction operation process


1, do screed


(1) Dashing ash cakes and doing smashing: the same way as the ground floor cement mortar.


(2) Brushing cement slurry bonding layer: practice the same floor cement mortar surface.


(3) Spread the cement mortar leveling layer: 1:3 dry hard cement mortar for the leveling layer, first flatten the mortar, then use the pressure ruler to flatten the squeezing ribs, then use the wooden trowel to smooth the compaction, and the surface is required to be flat and compact. Keep it rough, after the leveling layer is wiped, the next day should be watered for at least one day.


2, the grid inlay


(1) After one day of screed maintenance, firstly, in the screed layer, the vertical and horizontal directions or pattern ink lines are ejected according to the design requirements, and then the grid lines are cut according to the ink line.


(2) Use a pure cement slurry to smear the splayed corners in the lower part of the division strips. The long seat is firmly embedded (about 30 degrees from the leveling layer), and the iron wire worn by the copper strips should be buried. The application height of pure cement slurry is 3~5mm lower than that of the sub-bar (see the figure below). The sub-bar should be inlaid firmly, the joints are tight, the top surface is on the same plane, and the flatness and straightness are checked by the line.


(3) After the grid is inlaid, watering and maintenance should be started every 12 hours, and it should be maintained for at least two days.


3, smudged stone surface layer


(1) Cement stone slurry must be measured strictly according to the mixing ratio. The colored terrazzo should firstly dry and mix the white cement and the pigment according to the mixing ratio. After mixing, the mixture should be sieved several times to make the pigment evenly mixed in the white cement, and adjust the spare amount for the replenishment. Stir well with stone rice and add water to stir.


(2) The day before the cement stone slurry was sprayed, the base layer was sprinkled with water. Clear the water and floating sand in the grid, and apply the brush to the cement slurry. The cement type is the same as the cement type of the stone pulp. Then the cement stone slurry is placed next to the grid strip, and the grid strip will be Cement stone slurry (the ratio of stone pulp is generally 1:1.25 or 1:1.50) is gently smoothed to protect the division strips, then the whole grid is spread, using wood grinding board or iron trowel Smooth the compaction, but do not apply a flat ruler. The surface layer should be about 5mm higher than the sub-bar. If the local stone slurry is too thick, use the iron trowel to dig it up, and then scrape the surrounding stone slurry and compact it. If the local cement slurry is thicker, some stones should be properly filled. And flattening and compacting, to achieve a smooth surface, uniform distribution of stones.


(3) At least two times, the stone surface should be opened with a hair brush to remove the surface slurry. Check the stone evenly (if it is too sparse, it should be filled with stones in time), then use a metal trowel to smooth the compaction until the slurry is finished. It is required to flatten the corrugation and the stones on the top surface of the sub-bar should be removed.


(4) If there are several color patterns on the same plane, you should make a dark color first, then a light color. After the former color paste is solidified, the latter color paste is applied. Two color pastes should not be applied at the same time to avoid cross-coloring. However, the interval should not be too long, and it can usually be spread every other day.


(5) Maintenance: After the stone pulp is finished, it should be watered and maintained from the next day. And should set a warning line to prevent people from trampling.


4, terrazzo polishing


(1) Large-area construction should be ground with a mechanical grinder. Small areas and corners can be ground with a small portable grinder. When mechanical grinding is not possible for local use, manual grinding can be used. Before grinding, try to grind. If the stone is not loose after trial grinding, it can be ground. Generally, the grinding time is related to the temperature and cement label type.


(2) The polishing operation should be carried out by the method of “two-pulp three-grinding”, that is, the whole polishing process is divided into three times of polishing and two times of replenishing.


A. Grind the first stone with 60-80 rough stone, rinse with the water with the grinding, and sweep the ground slurry in time. For the whole water-grinding surface, it should be ground, smoothed and ground to expose the top surface of the stone and all the tops of the strip.


B. After the grinding, rinse the muddy water in time. After a little drying, apply a layer of the same color cement slurry (that is, replenish the pulp) to fill the sand holes and dents. Fill the individual stone removal parts well, different colors. When sizing, it should be carried out in the order of depth and shallowness.


C. After the slurry is added, it needs to be cured for 3 to 4 days, and then the grinding is performed for the second time with the 100-150 grinding stone. The method is the same as the first time. It is required to be ground until the surface is smooth and there is no ambiguity.


D. After cleaning and cleaning, apply a layer of the same color cement slurry. After 3 to 4 days of maintenance, use the fine grinding stone of No. 180-240 for the third time grinding. It is required to grind until the stone particles are exposed. The surface is smooth and smooth, no pores of the sand holes, and then rinsed and cured with water.


(3) Excessive oxalic acid. After the grinding of the terrazzo surface layer is checked to achieve the flatness and smoothness requirements, the oxalic acid can be polished and polished. Apply 10%~15% oxalic acid solution during operation, or directly apply appropriate amount of water and oxalic acid powder on the terrazzo surface layer, then finely grind with 280~320 fine whetstone, grind until white pulp, and the surface is smooth. Then wipe off the white pulp with a cloth, rinse with water and allow to dry.


(4) Wax polishing. According to the ratio of wax: kerosene = 1:4, it is heat-melted, and then blended into a proper amount of pine perfume to adjust into a thin paste, and the wax is evenly coated on the terrazzo surface with a cloth. After the wax is dried, the wood block covered with burlap is used instead of the oil stone to be polished on the grinding wheel of the stone grinder until the surface of the terrazzo is smooth and clean.


Fourth, terrazzo construction quality standards


1. Guarantee project


(1) The material and strength (mixing ratio) of the surface layer must meet the design requirements and construction specifications.


(2) The combination of the top layer and the base layer must be firm and free of empty drums. (The empty drum area is not more than 400cm2 without cracks, and no more than two in one inspection area, excluding)


Basic project


(1) The surface quality of the terrazzo surface shall comply with the following requirements:


Qualified: The surface is basically smooth, no obvious cracks and sand, the stone is dense, and the grid is firm.


Excellent: the surface is smooth, no cracks, sand holes and rubbing, the stone particles are dense and uniform, the color pattern is consistent, no color mixing; the grid bars are firm, straight and clear.


Inspection method: observation inspection.


(2) Floor drains and flooding should meet the following requirements:


Qualified: the slope meets the drainage requirements, no flooding, no leakage


Excellent: the slope meets the design requirements, no flooding, no leakage, no water accumulation, and the joint with the floor drain (pipe) is tight and smooth.


Test method: observe or pour water check.


(3) The quality of the baseboard should meet the following requirements:


Qualified: Highly consistent; firmly combined with the wall cylinder surface, the local hollow drum length is not more than 400mm, and no more than two in one inspection range.


Excellent: the height is consistent, the thickness of the wall is even; the wall cylinder surface is firmly combined; the partial hollow drum length is not more than 200mm, and there are no more than two in one inspection range.


Inspection method: use a small hammer to tap, measure and observe.


(4) Steps and steps should meet the following requirements:


Qualified: The width is basically the same, the width and height difference of the adjacent two steps are not more than 20mm, the tooth angle is basically neat, and the anti-slip strip is straight.


Excellent: the width is consistent, the width and height difference of the adjacent two steps are not more than 10mm, the tooth angle is neat, and the anti-slip strip is straight.


Inspection method: observation and ruler inspection.


(5) The edging shall comply with the following provisions:


Qualified: The material and dimensions of the edging adjacent to the surface layer meet the design requirements and construction specifications.


Excellent: On the basis of qualification, the corners are neat and smooth, and the adjacent parts of different colors are not mixed.


Inspection method: observation and ruler inspection.


Five, terrazzo construction considerations


1, to avoid the quality of the project


(1) The stone is unevenly exposed:


A. The stone specifications are not good, the mixing is uneven and the mixing ratio is not accurate enough.


B. The unevenness of the paving, no opening with a brush, not carefully checking the uniformity of the stone, after the opening of the surface, the stone is not filled with stone.


C, the depth of the grinding surface is not uniform.


(2) Four corners in the division block:


A. The base layer is not clean and not wet enough.


B, the base layer is not evenly distributed.


(3) The divisional strips are picked up, revealing unclear or the surface is not flat enough.


A. The grids are not inlaid and flat.


B. The exposed height of the grid bars after the stone pulp is spread is inconsistent.


C, the grinding surface is not strictly controlled and smooth.


2. Main safety technical measures


In addition to the main safety technical measures in the cement mortar surface (1), (2), (4), there are:


A. The grinding machine should be inspected before the operation to confirm that the wire plug is firm and no leakage can be used. When the grinding is started, the wire and distribution box of the stone grinder should be tied up to prevent moisture leakage; the distribution box should be leaked. The gate switch and the grinding machine shall be provided with a reliable safety grounding wire.


B. The operator of the stone grinder should wear high-grade insulating rubber boots and insulating rubber gloves, and often carry out education on the safety operation of mechanical and electrical equipment.


3, product protection


In addition to the product protection (1) to (3) in the cement mortar surface layer, there are:


A. The stone grinder should have a cover plate to prevent the water from splashing and staining the wall.


B. The whetstone should be organized and discharged to the designated place, and should not flow into the floor drain or the sewage discharge port to avoid blockage.


C. After the completion of the surface layer, it is strictly forbidden to stroll, trample, stir the slurry and throw objects. Separate protective measures should be taken when stacking materials and debris to avoid damage to the surface layer.


4. Advanced terrazzo finish


The construction of the advanced terrazzo surface layer can be carried out according to the above process, but the number of polishing passes should be increased and the number of the oil stone should be increased.


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